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Rough gem material is first reduced in size using a saw, with a diamond or carborundum impregnated saw blade.The blade runs vertically and is cooled by water or oil.The reverse cabochon, although rarely seen, has the convex top with a concave or depression in it and flat bottom.Cabochons are fashioned using sawing the rough, grinding, sanding, and polishing.The blade is very thin and made of copper, bronze, or steel.
There are five basic styles of cabochon cuts: single, double, lentil, hollow, and reverse.
The hollow cabochon has a convex top and flat bottom, but the dome is hollowed out and polished.
This concave surface enables better light transmission in dark stones.
The general outline, or shape as viewed from above, is circular, oval, rectangular, heart-shaped, or irregular.
The single cabochon has a convex or arched up top and flat base.